Archive for Government
Airport Owners and Operators
Airport operators or fixed base operators need airport liability coverage and hangarkeepers legal liability coverage on their operations. Commercial general liability coverage forms provide this coverage. Aircraft hull and liability coverage is also needed when the operations include ownership and rental of planes to individual pilots or student pilots.
United States workers on foreign assignments need property insurance coverage to protect their personal property from loss or damage. They also need liability insurance coverage to protect them against claims and/or suits due to allegations of injuries. This blanket coverage is available to corporations with multiple expatriate exposures. The master policy is issued to the corporation and certificates are provided to individual employees. The employer purchases a base layer of property and liability coverage for its expatriate employees. The employee can increase these base limits to fit his or her needs for an additional fee. Each plan covers personal liability and both scheduled and unscheduled personal property.
Arborists are tree specialists. They frequently consult and provide advice on the type of tree to plant and where to plant it. These decisions can have impact on power lines, sewer systems, and fire exposures. Arborists often provide tree-related services such as planting, trimming, removing, and spraying. Some arborists own nurseries.
Liability and physical damage coverage for buses is rated under the publicautomobile section in automobile rating manuals. This class of business is often difficult to place through standard markets. Underwriting considerations include the number of passengers that can be carried, annual mileage, and the bus’s use. Examples are intracity, airport, hotel, resort, and school buses. Most states require minimum mandatory financial responsibility limits based on the number of passengers carried.
Educators/Teachers Individual Professional Liability
Teachers and other educators can be sued by or on behalf of students for actual or alleged injury or damage. While the employing school or district has a responsibility to defend the teacher, the objective of that school or district is to first protect itself. The individual will have little control of the action and may actually lose all coverage and defense if the school or districtâ€™s limits of liability are exhausted by payments of other suits. This coverage is purchased by the individual for his or her own protection. It includes defense coverage plus high limits of indemnity against allegations of not providing appropriate or effective professional services such as inadequate supervision, assault, damage to property and more.
Emergency Medical Technicians E&O
Timely response by professional emergency medical technicians (EMTs) to their patients’ needs is the cornerstone of pre-hospital emergency care. Their professional liability exposures can be covered under a group policy that insures the emergency medical unit. The group policy can also cover ambulance services, fire departments, first-aid teams, and rescue squads. Professional liability coverage for EMT instructors/coordinators is also available.
Emergency Service Organizations
Organizations that provide pre-hospital care, such as public and private ambulance services, fire departments, first-aid teams, rescue squads, and first responders are eligible for coverage under specialty programs. Such programs provide professional liability, auto liability, auto physical damage, inland marine, commercial general liability, umbrella liability, directors and officers liability, workers compensation, and employers’ liability coverages. Coverage on real and personal property and group hospitalization and accidental death and dismemberment/medical expense coverage/disability income coverage for volunteers is also available.
Firefighters Accident, Death and Disability Coverage
Firefighters face hazards and exposures that require special accident and health policies. Policies are available that compensate for accidental death, dismemberment, permanent disability, and certain specified diseases. Members of fire departments who respond to fire alarms or perform other firefighting duties are usually eligible for these coverages. Some insurers offer premium discounts for associations of fire departments. First-aid units or rescue squads that are part of the fire department may also be eligible for firefighters insurance benefits.
Law Enforcement Officers Liability
Law enforcement officer or police professional liability coverage forms or policies provide broad coverage to law enforcement agencies and their individual law enforcement officers. They cover the law enforcement agency of any political subdivision named as the insured, along with all paid full-time and part-time individual law enforcement officers. This coverage insures against third-party suits or claims for bodily injury liability and personal injury liability, including legal defense against such actions. Acts such as false arrest, erroneous service of civil papers, false imprisonment, libel, slander, defamation of character, violation of property rights, and assault and battery in the course of making an arrest are covered.
Insurance for public libraries may be written on a stand-alone basis or as part of a municipal package that covers city and county libraries. The stand-alone package is a combination of property, commercial general liability, business auto, and other specialized insurance coverages. Inland marine coverages insure fine arts, valuable papers, books, visual aids, and other library property. Coverage for limited first-party pollution cleanup may also be included. Coverage also applies to book spoilage due to changes in temperature. Property coverage extends off premises to apply to exhibitions, outdoor sculptures and monuments, and computer equipment. Commercial general liability coverage that includes medical payments coverage for staff and volunteers is available. Directors and Officers liability, employment practices liability, and Errors and Omissions liability for librarians are optional coverages that can be purchased.
Lobbyists operate at the local, state and federal level to advocate for or against legislative initiatives on behalf of their clients. The lobbyist exposure is similar to a law office but with more significant personal and advertising injury exposure. Many lawyer professional policies exclude lobbying exposure so endorsements are needed. Electronic data liability, cyber liability, computer fraud, and EDP coverage are essential coverages. Many lobbyists have extensive off-premises and travel-related exposures.
Military Housing Property Managers
The 1996 National Defense Authorization Act created the Military Housing Privatization Initiative (MHPI). This is a public/private program where private sector developers own, operate, maintain, improve, and assume responsibility for military housing. The manager may provide management over existing properties or demolish existing properties, build new ones, and then manage them. Coverage usually includes property, general liability, auto, D&O, inland marine, E&O, and crime. Tenant personal property and liability coverage may also be offered.:
Municipal and Public Entities Liability
This specialized liability policy is available from a number of insurers. It covers the liability requirements of cities, counties, townships, and other public entities. In certain states, the coverage insures the liability imposed on the public entity by law and liability that the public entity assumed by contract to the extent that it could legally do so. Some public entity policies cover specific personal injury offenses in addition to bodily injury. The definition of insured includes the named public entity, as well as its additional insureds, officials, servants, and employees. This coverage applies to both commercial general liability and auto liability.
Natural Gas Utilities
The two types of natural gas utilities are public owned and investor owned. Both distribute natural gas to residential and commercial consumers. Each faces a variety of unique exposures. Some natural gas systems operate peak saving facilities that store natural gas to be used to supplement the normal amount of gas delivered to customers during peak-use periods. Others have propane delivery operations to customers not yet connected to gas lines. These and other operations require aggressive loss control and safety management programs. The potential for underground gas pipes rupturing is a major exposure and regular line maintenance is vital. Commercial property, general liability, automobile, directors and officers liability, inland marine, and umbrella liability coverages are needed.
Outdoor Recreational Facilities
National and state parks provide individuals and families a variety of opportunities for outdoor camping and recreation. Outdoors enthusiasts fill privately owned camping grounds and hunting and fishing preserves each weekend as well as during the week. Insurance packages are available that cover liability exposures such as saddle animals, horseback trail rides, archery clubs, shooting ranges, hunting and fishing clubs, recreational trails, resort hotels and motels, dude ranches, winter recreational activities and canoe, kayak, river rafting, and whitewater rafting. Auto liability coverage is available for buses and vans that transport guests to canoe and river rafting sites and for cross-country trips. Some programs also cover buildings and equipment owned by hunting and fishing lodges, hotels, and motels. General liability insurance is also available for clubs and members who lease land from others for hunting and fishing. Coverage is also available for landowners who rent out their land for hunting.D527
Planners Professional Liability
Nearly every governmental entity and most developers use professional planners. Planners utilize data to forecast a community’s future needs for infrastructure and similar support facilities. Planning breaks down even further into the subspecialties of comprehensive planning, urban planning, site/master planning, economic planning, traffic/transportation planning, zoning and permitting, land use planning, environment planning, and historic preservation. Planners cannot be blamed for making incorrect predictions, but they do have a professional exposure if they are negligent or perform wrongful acts in the process of gathering and analyzing information and making recommendations.
Police & Law Enforcement
Political Action Committees Liability
Political action committees (PACs) are extremely active in channeling funds to their favorite political candidates. PAC members are exposed to possible lawsuits because of the nature of their work. A claims-made liability policy insures PAC members. The coverage provided applies to defense costs, any settlement costs, and reasonable expenses. Most importantly, it insures against the exposures defined in the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, including its various amendments and applicable Internal Revenue Service (IRS) codes.
Power Distribution: Electric Utilities
Electricity is not useful unless it is distributed. Electric cooperatives, public utility divisions, municipalities, and co-generation systems are examples of distributors. Their coverage needs include at least property, crime, equipment breakdown, general liability, auto liability and physical damage, D&O, workers compensation, and umbrella liability.
Private Corrections Industry
The privatization of the prison correctional system in the United States is well established. Local, state, and federal authorities often turn to private industry to provide correctional services. Coverages available include commercial general liability, products/completed operations liability, medical malpractice, and errors and omissions. These coverages are usually written on a claims-made basis and errors and omissions coverage usually covers violations of civil rights.
Public Housing Authorities Liability
This coverage insures public housing authorities that own, lease, or manage low-income housing or that administer low-income assistance programs available through the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Policies can be written to cover public officials’ liability, errors and omissions, directors and officers coverage, and commercial general liability exposures.
Public Officials Liability
This coverage protects public officials elected or appointed to a legally constituted public entity. It is similar to directors and officers and board of education liability insurance. It provides direct coverage to the public official or a reimbursement to the public entity to indemnify an official, if permitted by law. It is written in the public entityâ€™s name and covers legal liability that arises from wrongful acts that occur while the public official is in office. Prospects for this coverage include park boards, city councils, sanitary districts, and air or port authorities.
Public Utilities Insurance
Underwriting public utilities requires knowledge and capacity. Basic coverages available include insurance on real and personal property, improvements, and betterments, including fixtures, alterations, installations, additions, and newly acquired property. Some insurers offer Difference in Conditions and Builders Risk coverage in addition to the basic perils. Electromagnetic fields (EMFs), particularly those produced by high-voltage power lines, have been implicated in a number of human illnesses, including leukemia and brain cancer. Studies to date are inconclusive but the fear of living or working near high-voltage power lines has diminished the values of property adjacent to them. Some insurers that write public utilities have developed liability coverage for EMF exposures. This EMF coverage is usually added to existing commercial general liability policies and various limits are available.
Buildings being rehabilitated in order to retain significant older structural features or historical landmarks, to obtain special tax credits, or simply to reduce the costs involved in new construction present unusual builders risk exposures which make them difficult to place. Property values do not begin at zero, as in standard builders risk exposures, because rehabilitation projects already have existing foundations, frames, walls, and roofs. A sublimit usually applies to the value of the building’s shell during the demolition and rehabilitation phases. Establishing partial occupancy before the project is complete can be a concern, especially in commercial rehabilitation jobs as well as in some residential work. Starting with an existing structure requires fire protection, welding and cutting precautions, protective fences, lighting, and guard services that may not be required with new construction.
Social Workers and Welfare Workers E&O
This insurance covers the liability of social workers and welfare workers while engaged in professional services for social agencies and welfare agencies. This coverage is often written in the name of the agency itself and applies to employed, qualified social and welfare workers who work for the agency.
Utility Systems Construction
Contractors that build and maintain water and sewer systems, oil and gas pipelines, and communications systems are in the utility systems construction business. This requires that they use specialized equipment in their work. Projects are usually large and some of them can last several years. The size and complexity of these contractors requires underwriting and claims specialists and risk managers. Some of these projects are written in wrap-up insurance programs.
Water and Sewer Entities
This category includes public and private entities that treat, store, or distribute water and wastewater. Some examples are water districts, mutual water companies, sewer districts, investor-owned utilities, and irrigation and reclamation districts. Two important general liability coverages especially needed are failure to supply and back-up of sewer and drains. If these coverages are offered, their sublimits and exclusions must be reviewed. Other coverages needed are property, professional liability, inland marine, equipment breakdown, public officials’ management liability, automobile liability and physical damage, and workers compensation.
Water Irrigation/Reclamation Districts Insurance
Reclamation districts collect wastewater, treat it, and then supply water for irrigation and flood control. Water districts do the same thing but usually only supply water for public consumption and industrial use. These districts are operated by independent boards that are subject to municipal oversight. Most water irrigation/reclamation district programs are written in California where irrigation is very important to farmers, but programs for water districts are expanding into other states. Property, equipment breakdown, inland marine, auto liability, general liability, and directors and officers liability coverages are available.